Mariam-uz-Zamani (Persian: مریم الزمانی, lit. 'Mary of the Age'), (c. 1542 – 19 May 1623) was a wife of Emperor Akbar. Her actual name is unknown, but in an 18th-century genealogy of her clan (the Kachwahas), she is referred to as Harkhan Champavati. She is also referred to as Harkha Bai or Jodha Bai, which perhaps indicates that she was a princess of Jodhpur by birth (although mostly she is said to have been a princess of Amber). Mariam-uz-Zamani was the respectful Persian title by which she was known at her husband's court. In the Mughal Empire, non-Muslim noblewoman who entered the imperial harem were given titles as a mark of honour (which she received only after the birth of her son) and this is the reason why her actual name is rather obscure. Mariam-uz-Zamani was born a Rajput princess. According to some sources, she was the daughter of Raja Bihari Mal (or Bihari Mal) of Amber (Jaipur), whereas other historians infer that she was a princess of Jodhpur, because she is also known as "Jodha Bai." In 1562, she was offered in marriage to the Emperor Akbar by her father, Raja Bihari Mal. The wedding, held in Sambhar, was a political one and was a sign of complete submission of her father, Bihari Mal, to his imperial overlord, the Mughal emperor Akbar. The marriage is notable for having been the first instance wherein a Rajput Raja offered his daughter in marriage to a Muslim emperor. She is widely regarded in modern Indian historiography as exemplifying Akbar's and the Mughal's tolerance of religious differences and their inclusive policies within an expanding multi-ethnic and multi-denominational empire.
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