Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city of Johor is Johor Bahru. The royal city of the state is Muar and the old state capital is Johor Lama.In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Melaka who fled from the invading Portuguese in Melaka. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. On Malacca's defeat by the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor, which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak—established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I—was the other successor state of Malacca. During Johor's peak, the whole of Pahang, present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago, and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.
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